The DECADE initiative seeks to use new and established technologies to determine accurate global fluxes of volcanic CO2 to the atmosphere, by installing CO2 monitoring networks on 20 of the world’s 150 most actively degassing volcanoes. The group also uses related laboratory-based studies (direct gas sampling & analysis, melt inclusions) to provide new data for direct degassing of deep Earth carbon to the atmosphere.

Acting officers of the DECADE initiative are Tobias Fischer (Chair, University of New Mexico), Taryn Lopez (Co-Chair, University of Alaska), Patrick Allard (Vice-Chair, Institut de Physique du Globe, France) and Erik Hauri (Treasurer, Carnegie Institution of Washington). Alessandro Aiuppa (University of Palermo, Italy), Nicole Bobrowski (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Germany), Giovanni Chiodini (INGV, Italy), Marie Edmonds (University of Cambridge, UK) and Bo Galle (Chalmers University, Sweden) are serving as additional board members.

The DECADE initiative began in 2011 at a meeting of volcanologists at a conference in Kamchatka, Russia. The group currently consists of more than two dozen researchers from 10 countries each with extensive experience in volcanic gas emissions studies on volcanoes worldwide, including all countries that operate major national volcano observatories. The group represents a combined 319 years of post-PhD research in the deep Earth cycling of volatile elements, physics and chemistry of fluids, and the evolution of volcanic systems, and represents a broad range of expertise in applied physics, analytical geochemistry, remote sensing, high-temperature/pressure experimental petrology, and boots-on-the-ground geology of active volcanic systems. 

This body of work is represented by over 1000 scientific publications, with nearly 28,000 citations in the scientific literature and a combined H-index of 80. It is the first time such a group of scientists has brought their collective energies to bear on deep carbon cycle science in a coordinated effort. A major effort ongoing within DECADE is to establish formal collaborations among the national volcano observatories on all 7 continents.

The DECADE group uses remote-sensing data produced by various orbiting satellites (OMI, GOME-2, OCO-2) and ground-based scanning instruments (NOVAC network) that measure UV absorption by SO2 molecules produced by volcanic degassing.  Crater rim instruments (MultiGAS) measure the ratio of CO2/SO2 using automated laser-based and solid-state sensors to measure air samples in areas where the volcanic gas plumes cross the ground.  Both NOVAC and MultiGAS stations deliver data via telemetry, and the combination of these approaches is used to determine CO2 fluxes at volcanoes.  The DECADE group also conducts laboratory analyses, using elemental and isotopic mass spectrometry methods, on samples of gas and melt inclusions collected at the same volcanic sites.


Our Team


Tobias Fischer

fischer at unm.edu


taryn lopez

tmlopez at alaska.edu



pallard at ipgp.fr

nicole bobrowski

nbobrows at uni-mainz.de


Erik Hauri

ehauri at ciw.edu


alessandro aiuppa

alessandro.aiuppa at unipa.it

Bo Galle

bo.galle at chalmers.se



medm06 at esc.cam.ac.uk



giovanni.chiodini at ingv.it





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  • Rigo, A; Adam, C; Gregoire, M; Gerbault, M; Meyer, R; Rabinowicz, M; Fontaine, F; Bonvalot, S, (2015) Insights for the melt migration, the volcanic activity and the ultrafast lithosphere delamination related to the Yellowstone plume (Western USA). Geophys J Int 203:1274-1301, 10.1093/gji/ggv360.
  • Sanchez-Valle, C; Gaillard, F; Ghosh, S; Mezger, K, (2015) Fluids and melts in planetary interiors: From crust to core-mantle boundaries. Chem Geol 418:1-5, 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.11.012.
  • Sifre, D; Hashim, L; Gaillard, F, (2015) Effects of temperature, pressure and chemical compositions on the electrical conductivity of carbonated melts and its relationship with viscosity. Chem Geol 418:189-197, 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.09.022.
  • Silva, C; Viveiros, F; Ferreira, T; Gaspar, JL; Allard, P, (2015) Diffuse soil emanations of radon and hazard implications at Furnas Volcano, Sao Miguel Island (Azores). Geol Soc Mem :197-211, 10.1144/M44.15.
  • Viveiros, F; Ferreira, T; Silva, C; Vieira, JC; Gaspar, JL; Virgili, G; Amaral, P, (2015) Permanent monitoring of soil CO2 degassing at Furnas and Fogo volcanoes (Sao Miguel Island, Azores). Geol Soc Mem :271-288, 10.1144/M44.20.
  • Viveiros, F; Gaspar, JL; Ferreira, T; Silva, C; Marcos, M; Hipolito, A, (2015) Mapping of soil CO2 diffuse degassing at Sao Miguel Island and its public health implications. Geol Soc Mem :185-195, 10.1144/M44.14.
  • Walowski, KJ; Wallace, PJ; Clynne, MA; Rasmussen, DJ; Weis, D, (2016) Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc. Earth Planet Sci Lett 446:100-112, 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.03.044.
  • Zamboni, D; Gazel, E; Ryan, JG; Cannatelli, C; Lucchi, F; Atlas, ZD; Trela, J; Mazza, SE; De Vivo, B, (2016) Contrasting sediment melt and fluid signatures for magma components in the Aeolian Arc: Implications for numerical modeling of subduction systems. Geochem Geophy Geosy 17:2034-2053, 10.1002/2016GC006301.
  • Chiodini, G., Cardellini, C., Lamberti, M.C., Agusto, M., Caselli, A., Liccioli, C., Tamburello, G., Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., Caliro, S. (2015) Carbon dioxide diffuse emission and thermal energy release from hydrothermal systems at Copahue-Caviahue Volcanic Complex (Argentina) Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, pp. 294-303. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.09.007
  • Chiodini, G., Pappalardo, L., Aiuppa, A., Caliro, S. (2015) The geological CO2 degassing history of a long-lived caldera Geology, 43 (9), pp. 767-770. DOI: 10.1130/G36905.1
  • Aiuppa A., P. Bani, Y. Moussallam, R. Di Napoli, P. Allard, H. Gunawan, M. Hendrasto, G. Tamburello (2015) First determination of magma-derived gas emissions from Bromo volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia). J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res. 304, 206–213, 2015.

  • Bani P., A. Normier, C. Bacri, P. Allard P., H. Gunawan, M. Hendrasto, Surono, V. Tsanev (2015) First measurement of the volcanic gas output from Anak Krakatau, Indonesia. J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res. 302, 237–241.

  • La Spina A., Burton M., Allard P., Alparone S., Murè F. (2015) Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna. Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 413, 123–134.


  • Allard, P., Aiuppa, A., Beauducel, F., Gaudin, D., Di Napoli, R., Calabrese, S., … & Tamburello, G. (2014). Steam and gas emission rate from La Soufriere volcano, Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles): implications for the magmatic supply during degassing unrest. Chemical Geology, 384. 76-93.
  • Black, B.A., Hauri, E.H., Elkins-Tanton, L.T. and Brown, S.M. (2014). Sulfur isotopic evidence for sources of volatiles in Siberian Traps magmas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 394, 58-69. 
  • Brounce, M.N., Kelley, K.A., & Cottrell, E. (2014). Variations in Fe3+/ΣFe of Mariana arc basalts and mantle wedge fO2. Journal of Petrology, 55(12), 2513-2536.  doi:10.1093/petrology/egu065. 
  • Edmonds, M., Humphreys, M.C.S., Hauri, E.H., Herd, R.A., Wadge, G., Rawson, H., Ledden, R., Plail, M., Barclay, J., Aiuppa, A., Christopher, T.E., Giudice, G., & Guida, R. (2014). Pre-eruptive vapour and its role in controlling eruption style and longevity at Soufriere Hills Volcano. In The eruption of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010.  Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 39(1), 291–315. 
  • Hartley, M.E., Maclennan, J., Edmonds, M., & Thordarson, T. (2014). Reconstructing the deep CO2 degassing behavior of large basaltic fissure eruptions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 393, 120-131. 
  • Kendrick, M.A., Jackson, M., Kent, A.J.R., Hauri, E.H., Wallace, P.J. and Woodhead, J. (2014) Contrasting behaviors of CO2, S, H2O and halogens (F, Cl, Br, and I) in enriched-mantle melts from Pitcairn and Society seamounts, Chemical Geology, 370, 69-81. 
  • Lloyd, A.S., Ruprecht, P., Hauri, E.H., Rose, W., Gonnermann, H.M., & Plank, T. (2014).  NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 283, 1-18. 
  • Lopez, T., Thomas, H., Prata, A., Amigo, A., Fee, D., & Moriano, D. (2014). Volcanic plume characteristics determined using an infrared imaging camera.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (Special Issue on Volcanic Plume Imaging). doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.12.009  
  • Neave, D., Maclennan, J., Edmonds, M., & Thordarson, T. (2014). Melt mixing causes negative correlation of trace element enrichment and CO2 content prior to an Icelandic eruption. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 400, 272-283. 
  • Oppenheimer, C., Fischer, T.P., & Scaillet, B. (2014).  Volcanic degassing: Process and impact. In Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), Vol. 4, 111-179.
  • Sides, I., Edmonds, M., Maclennan, J., Houghton, B., & Swanson, D. (2014). Eruption style at Kīlauea Volcano in Hawai’i linked to primary melt composition. Nature Geoscience, 7(6), 464-469.  doi: 10.1038/NGEO2140. 
  • Sides, I., Edmonds, M., Maclennan, J., Houghton, B., & Swanson, D. (2014). Magma mixing and high fountaining during the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption, Hawai’i. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 400, 102-112. 
  • Zellmer, G. F., Edmonds, M., & Straub, S.M. (2014). Volatiles in subduction zone magmatism. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 410, SP410-13. 


  • Barry, P.H., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., de Moor, J.M., Mangasini, F., & Ramirez, C. (2013). Helium and carbon isotope systematics of cold “mazuku” CO2 vents and hydrothermal gases and fluids from Rungwe Volcanic Province, southern Tanzania. Chemical Geology, 339, 141-156.
  • Burton, M.R., Sawyer, G.M., & Granieri, D. (2013). Deep carbon emissions from volcanoes. Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, 75, 323-354.
  • Cottrell, E., & Kelley, K.A. (2013). Redox heterogeneity in mid-ocean ridge basalts as a function of mantle source. Science 340(6138), 1314-1317.  
  • de Moor, J.M., Fischer, T.P., King, P.L., Bocharnikov, R.E., Hervig, R.L., Hilton, D.R., Barry, P.H., Mangasini, F., & Ramirez, C. (2013).  Volatile-rich silicate melts from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (Tanzania): Implications for carbonatite genesis and eruptive behavior. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 361, 379-390.
  • Di Napoli R., Aiuppa A., & Allard P. (2013). First Multi-GAS based characterization of the Boiling Lake volcanic gas (Dominica, Lesser Antilles). Annals of Geophysics 56, 5, S0559, doi:10.4401/ag-6277.
  • Lopez, T., Carn, S., Werner, C., Fee, D., Kelly, P., Doukas, M., Pfeffer, M., Webley, P., Cahill, C., & Schneider, D. (2013). Evaluation of Redoubt Volcano’s sulfur dioxide emissions by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 259, 290-307. doi:10.1016/j.volgeores.2012.03.002.
  • Lopez, T., Ushakov, S., Izbekov, P., Tassi, F., Cahill, C., Neill, O., & Werner, C. (2013). Constraints on magma processes, subsurface conditions, and total volatile flux at Bezymianny Volcano in 2007–2010 from direct and remote volcanic gas measurements.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (Special Issue on Magma System Response to Volcano Sector Collapse), 263, 92-107. doi:10.1016/j.volgeores.2012.10.015.
  • Lopez, T., Fee, D., Prata, F., & Dehn, J., (2013). Characterization and interpretation of volcanic activity at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, using observations of infrasound, volcanic emissions, and thermal imagery.  Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14 (12), 5106-5127. doi:10.1002/2013GC004817.
  • Mori, T., Shinohara, H., Kazahaya, K., Hirabayashi, J., Matsushima, T., Mori, T., Ohwada, M., Odai, M., Ino, H., Miyashita, M. (2013). Time-averages SO2 fluxes of subduction-zone volcanoes: Example of a 32-year exhaustive survey for Japanese volcanoes.  Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, 8662-8674.
  • Pietruszka, A.J., Norman, M.D., Garcia, M.O., Marske, J.P., & Burns, D.H. (2013). Chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume from the alteration and dehydration of recycled oceanic crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 361, 298-309.
  • Shinohara, H., (2013). Volatile flux from subduction zone volcanoes: Insights form a detailed evaluation of the fluxes from volcanoes in Japan.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 268, 46-63.
  • Tamburello, G., Aiuppa, A., McGonigle, A.J.S., Allard, P., Cannata, A., Giudice, G., …& Pering, T.D. (2013). Periodic volcanic degassing behavior: the Mount Etna example. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(18), 4818–4822, doi:10.1002/grl.50924.
  • 2012
  • Hahm, D., Hilton, D.R., Castillo, P.R., Hawkins, J.W., Hanan, B.B., & Hauri, E.H. (2012).  An overview of the volatile systematics of the Lau Basin – Resolving the effects of source variation, magmatic degassing and crustal contamination, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 85, 88-113. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.02.007. 
  • Le Voyer, M., Newcombe, M., Stolper, E.M., & Eiler, J.M. (2012). The nanoSIMS as a tool to study zonation around/in melt inclusions. Mineralogical Magazine, 76(6), 1984.
  • Lytle, M.L., Kelly, K.A., Hauri, E.H., Gill, J.B., Papia, D., and Arculus, R.J.  (2012). Tracing mantle sources and Samoan influence in the northwestern Lau back-arc basin.  Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 13(10), doi:10.1029/2012GC004233. 
  • Shaw, A.M., Hauri, E.H., Behn, M.D., Hilton, D.R., Macpherson, C.G., & Sinton, J.M. (2012).  Long-term preservation of slab signatures in the mantle inferred from hydrogen isotopes, Nature Geoscience, 5(3), 224-228.  doi: 10.1038/NGEO1406. 
  • Wetzel, D.T., Rutherford, M.J., Jacobsen, S.D., Hauri, E.H., Saal, A.E. (2013).  Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(20), 8010-8013. 


  • Cottrell, E., & Kelley, K.A. (2011). The oxidation state of Fe in MORB glasses and the oxygen fugacity of the upper mantle.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 305(3), 270-282.  


  • Cooper, L., Plank, T., Arculus, R., Hauri, E.H., Hall, P., & Parman, S. (2010).  High-Ca boninites from the active Tonga Arc.  Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 115 (B10).  doi:10.1029/2009JB006367. 
  • Kelley, K.A., Plank, T., Newman, S., Stolper, E.M., Grove, T.L., Parman, S., & Hauri, E.H. (2010). Mantle melting as a function of water content beneath the Mariana Arc, Journal of Petrology, doi: 10.1093/petrology/egq036. 
  • Mitchell, E.C., Fischer, T. P., Hilton, D.R., Hauri, E.H., Shaw, A.M., Maarten de Moor, J., Sharp, Z.D., & Kazahaya, K. (2010). Nitrogen sources and recycling at subduction zones: Insights from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc.  Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 11, Q02X11, doi:10.1029/2009GC002783. 
  • Schönbächler, M., Carlson, R.W., Horan, M.F., Mock, T.D., & Hauri, E.H. (2010). Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of the Earth, Science, 326, 884-887, DOI: 10.1126/science.1186239.