The DMGC initiative establishes a new international infrastructure for diamond research based on important questions about the Earth's deep interior that are uniquely recorded in diamonds. A basic goal is to advance studies of natural diamonds and experiments on diamond-forming fluids/melts for the understanding of carbon mobility in Earth’s interior today and through geologic time. DMGC is organized around the analytical expertise and research interests of members applied to understanding the Earth's deep carbon cycle. Sample availability in diamond research, and a coordinated effort on sample research, is paramount and to this end DMGC also includes registered sample collections and a geochemical database of diamonds and their inclusions.
Acting officers of the DMGC initiative are D. Graham Pearson (Chair, University of Alberta, Canada), Emilie Thomassot (Co-Chair, CRPG-CNRS, France), Michael Walter (Vice-Chair, University of Bristol, UK), Erik Hauri (Treasurer, Carnegie Institution of Washington, US), Pierre Cartigny (Secretary, Institut de Physique du Globe, France) and Steve Shirey (at large, Carnegie Institution of Washington, US).
The DMGC initiative began in 2011 at the first International Diamond School in Bressanone, Italy and the International Diamond School Program has since become an integral part of DMGC’s activities. The DMGC team currently consists of 28 researchers from 11 countries, experts in a wide variety of aspects of diamond research and includes all major diamond-producing countries and representatives from several diamond industry partners (including Rio Tinto and DeBeers) and professional organizations (including the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA)). The DMGC Diamond Collection consists of over 400 registered stones from Brazil, North America, Africa and China that are either curated by individual researchers (the virtual collection) or the Carnegie Institution of Washington (the resident collection). The DMGC team currently has over 1400 publications, with nearly 36,000 citations in the scientific literature and a combined H-index of 83 underscoring the wide appeal and high interest level of natural diamond research.
The DMGC group uses non-destructive microbeam methods (Xray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy) to identify the mineral and fluid inclusions trapped in diamonds. After all attempts have been made at non-destructive analysis, selected diamonds are then laser cut and polished to reveal the diamond interior structure (mapped using cathodoluminescence) and to expose inclusions for microbeam analysis (Raman, electron microprobe, SEM, ion microprobe). Sulfide and silicate phases can be subjected to geochronologic age determinations using long-lived isotope dating methods (U-Pb, Re-Os).
Although rare, diamonds outnumber other known mantle carbon phases (e.g. carbides; Hazen et al., 2013a) by many orders of magnitude. Their internal complexity records chemical events that have led to their formation and evolution. In addition, natural diamonds contain inclusions of many types of mantle minerals, whose composition reflects the depth and temperature of their trapping, and whose ages are used to date the host diamond. The pressures of diamond inclusions demonstrate that some diamonds come from as deep as ~800 kilometers; the ages of diamond inclusions range from geologically young (e.g., 100 million years) to ~4 billion years, nearly as old as the oldest rocks on Earth’s surface.
Despite their scientific importance, the research community has no generally accessible supply of diamonds from mines, due to changes in the economics of diamond mining companies and other factors. Restriction in samples available for research has contributed to a fragmented and uncoordinated community of researchers interested in diamonds for mantle dynamics, a situation that DMGC seeks to remedy through organization and collaboration. Importantly, the work of the DMGC team is the only approach that we have that will address the evolution of the Earth’s deep carbon cycle through deep time.
gdpearson at ualberta.ca
emilie at crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr
m.j.walter at bristol.ac.uk
sshirey at carnegiescience.edu
ehauri at ciw.edu
cartigny at ipgp.fr
fabrizo.nestola at unipd.it
dorrit.jacob at mq.edu.au
ksmit at gia.edu
s.aulbach at em.uni-frankfurt.de
tstachel at ualberta.ca
f.brenker at em.uni-frankfurt.de
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- Smith, E. , Shirey, S., Nestola, F., Richardson, S. , Wang, W., Bullock, E, Wang, J., (2016) Origin of big gem diamonds from metallic liquid in deep Earth mantle. Science 354, 1403-1405.
- Lithos vol 265: Special Issue on Diamonds Papers (editors: Nestola, Alvero, Pearson & Shirey)
- F. Nestola, M. Alvaro, D.G. Pearson and S.B. Shirey (2016) “The nature of diamonds and their use in earth's study”, Lithos 265, 1-3
- H. Bureau, D.J. Frost, N. Bolfan-Casanova, C. Leroy, I. Esteve and P. Cordier (2016) Diamond growth in mantle fluids, Lithos 265, 4-15.
- K. Hogberg, T. Stachel and R.A. Stern (2016) Carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics in diamond: Different sensitivities to isotopic fractionation or a decoupled origin? Lithos 265, 16-31.
- M.M. Jean, L.A. Taylor, G.H. Howarth, A.H. Peslier, L. Fedele, R.J. Bodnar, Y. Guan, L.S. Doucet, D.A. Ionov, A.M. Logvinova, A.V. Golovin and N.V. Sobolev (2016) Olivine inclusions in Siberian diamonds and mantle xenoliths: Contrasting water and trace-element contents. Lithos 265, 31-41.
- C.W. Kosman, M.G. Kopylova, R.A. Stern, J.W. Hagadorn and J.F. Hurlbut (2016) Cretaceous mantle of the Congo craton: Evidence from mineral and fluid inclusions in Kasai alluvial diamonds. Lithos 265, 42-56
- J. Rudloff-Grund, F.E. Brenker, K. Marquardt, D. Howell, A. Schreiber, S.Y. O'Reilly, W.L. Griffin and F.V. Kaminsky (2016) Nitrogen nanoinclusions in milky diamonds from Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lithos 265, 57-67.
- K.V. Smit, S.B. Shirey, R.A. Stern, A. Steele and W. Wang (2016) Diamond growth from C–H–N–O recycled fluids in the lithosphere: Evidence from CH4 micro-inclusions and δ13C–δ15N–N content in Marange mixed-habit diamonds. Lithos 265, 68-81.
- C.B. Smith, M.J. Walter, G.P. Bulanova, S. Mikhail, A.D. Burnham, L. Gobbo and S.C. Kohn (2016) Diamonds from Dachine, French Guiana: A unique record of early Proterozoic subduction. Lithos 265 82-95.
- S. Skuzovatov, D. Zedgenizov, D. Howell and W.L. Griffin (2016) Various growth environments of cloudy diamonds from the Malobotuobia kimberlite field (Siberian craton). Lithos 265, 96-107.
- A.R. Thomson, S.C. Kohn, G.P. Bulanova, C.B. Smith, D. Araujo and M.J. Walter (2016) Trace element composition of silicate inclusions in sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 kimberlite: Evidence for diamond growth from slab melts. Lithos 265, 108-124.
- D.A. Zedgenizov, V.V. Kalinina, V.N. Reutsky, O.P. Yuryeva and M.I. Rakhmanov (2016) Regular cuboid diamonds from placers on the northeastern Siberian platform. Lithos 265, 125-137.
- C. Anzolini, R.J. Angel, M. Merlini, M. Derzsi, K. Tokár, S. Milani, M.Y. Krebs, F.E. Brenker, F. Nestola and J.W. Harris (2016) Depth of formation of CaSiO3 walstromite included in super-deep diamonds. Lithos 265, 138-147
- S.C. Kohn, L. Speich, C.B. Smith and G.P. Bulanova (2016) FTIR thermochronometry of natural diamonds: A closer look. Lithos 265, 148-158.
- N. Kueter, J. Soesilo, Y. Fedortchouk, F. Nestola, L. Belluco, J. Troch, M. Wälle, M. Guillong, A. Von Quadt and T. Driesner (2016) Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies. Lithos 265, 159-176.
- D.J. Schulze and L. Nasdala (2016) Unusual paired pattern of radiohaloes on a diamond crystal from Guaniamo (Venezuela). Lithos 265, 177-181.
- M.P.A.C. Borges, M.A. Moura, S.L.R. Lenharo, C.B. Smith and D.P. Araujo (2016) Mineralogical characterization of diamonds from Roosevelt Indigenous Reserve, Brazil, using non-destructive methods. Lithos 265, 182-198.
- A.D. Burnham, G.P. Bulanova, C.B. Smith, S.C. Whitehead, S.C. Kohn, L. Gobbo and M.J. Walter (2016) Diamonds from the Machado River alluvial deposit, Rondônia, Brazil, derived from both lithospheric and sublithospheric mantle. Lithos 265, 199-213.
- A.P. Jones, P.F. McMillan, C.G. Salzmann, M. Alvaro, F. Nestola, M. Prencipe, D. Dobson, R. Hazael and M. Moore (2016) Structural characterization of natural diamond shocked to 60 GPa; implications for Earth and planetary systems. 265, 214-221.
- F.V. Kaminsky, R. Wirth, L.P. Anikin, L. Morales and A. Schreiber (2016) Carbonado-like diamond from the Avacha active volcano in Kamchatka, Russia. Lithos 265, 222-236.
- M. Palot, S.D. Jacobsen, J.P. Townsend, F. Nestola, K. Marquardt, N. Miyajima, J.W. Harris, T. Stachel, C.A. McCammon and D.G. Pearson (2016) Evidence for H2O-bearing fluids in the lower mantle from diamond inclusion. Lithos 265, 237-243.
- S. Piazolo, F.V. Kaminsky, P. Trimby, L. Evans and V. Luzin (2016) Carbonado revisited: Insights from neutron diffraction, high resolution orientation mapping and numerical simulations. Lithos 265, 244-256.
- N.V. Sobolev, V.S. Shatsky, D.A. Zedgenizov, A.L. Ragozin and V.N. Reutsky (2016) Polycrystalline diamond aggregates from the Mir kimberlite pipe, Yakutia: Evidence for mantle metasomatism. Lithos 265, 257-266.
- N.V. Sobolev, R. Wirth, A.M. Logvinova, A.P. Yelisseyev and D.V. Kuzmin (2016) Retrograde isochemical phase transformations of majoritic garnets included in diamonds: A case study of subcalcic Cr-rich majoritic pyrope from a Snap Lake diamond, Canada. Lithos 265, 267-277.
- A.P. Yelisseyev, V.P. Afanasiev, A.V. Panchenko, S.A. Gromilov, V.V. Kaichev and А.А. Saraev (2016) Yakutites: Are they impact diamonds from the Popigai crater? Lithos 265, 278-291.
- Y.V. Bataleva, Y.N. Palyanov, Y.M. Borzdov, I.N. Kupriyanov and A.G. Sokol (2016) Synthesis of diamonds with mineral, fluid and melt inclusions. Lithos 265, 292-303.
- V.G. Malkovets, D.I. Rezvukhin, E.A. Belousova, W.L. Griffin, I.S. Sharygin, I.G. Tretiakova, A.A. Gibsher, S.Y. O'Reilly, D.V. Kuzmin, K.D. Litasov, A.M. Logvinova, N.P. Pokhilenko and N.V. Sobolev (2016) Cr-rich rutile: A powerful tool for diamond exploration. Lithos 265, 292-304.
- S. Milani, F. Nestola, R.J. Angel, P. Nimis and J.W. Harris (2016) Crystallographic orientations of olivine inclusions in diamonds. Lithos 265, 305-316.
- L. Nasdala, S. Steger and C. Reissner (2016) Raman study of diamond-based abrasives, and possible artefacts in detecting UHP microdiamond Lithos 265, 317-327.
- F. Nestola, V. Cerantola, S. Milani, C. Anzolini, C. McCammon, D. Novella, I. Kupenko, A. Chumakov, R. Rüffer and J.W. Harris (2016) Synchrotron Mössbauer Source technique for in situ measurement of iron-bearing inclusions in natural diamonds. Lithos 265, 328-333.
- F. Nestola, M. Alvaro, M.N. Casati, H. Wilhelm, A.K. Kleppe, A.P. Jephcoat, M.C. Domeneghetti and J.W. Harris (2016) Source assemblage types for cratonic diamonds from X-ray synchrotron diffraction. Lithos 265, 334-338.
- Y.N. Palyanov, I.N. Kupriyanov, A.G. Sokol, Y.M. Borzdov and A.F. Khokhryakov (2016) Effect of CO2 on crystallization and properties of diamond from ultra-alkaline carbonate melt. Lithos 265, 339-340.
- S. Aulbach, J. Mungall & D.G. Pearson (2016). Distribution and processing of highly siderophile elements in cratonic mantle lithosphere. In: Highly Siderophile and Strongly Chalcophile Elements in High-Temperature Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. Eds. J. Harvey & J.M.D. Day, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America Geochemical Society, vol 81, 239-303.
- J Harvey, JM Warren, SB Shirey (2016) Mantle sulfides and their role in Re-Os and Pb isotope geochronology. Rev Mineral Geochem 81, 579-649
- DE Jacob, S Piazolo, A Schreiber, P Trimby (2016) Redox-freezing and nucleation of diamond via magnetite formation in the Earth's mantle. Nature Communications 7, doi:10.1038/ncomms11891.
- ES Kiseeva, BJ Wood, S Ghosh, T Stachel (2016) The pyroxenite-diamond connection. Geochem. Persp. Let. (2016) 2, 1-9 | doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1601.
- M. Y. Krebs, D. G. Pearson, T. Stachel, R. A. Stern, T. Nowicki & S. Cairns (2016) Using micro-diamonds in kimberlite diamond grade prediction: A case study of the variability in diamond population characteristics across the size range 0.2 - 3.4 mm - from Misery, Ekati Mine, NWT, Canada. Economic Geology, 111, 503-525.
- M. Palot, , , S.D. Jacobsen, J.P. Townsend, F. Nestola, K. Marquardt, N. Miyajima, J.W. Harris, T. Stachel, C.A. McCammon, D.G. Pearson (2016) Evidence for H2O-bearing fluids in the lower mantle from diamond inclusion. Lithos, 30th June doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2016.06.023.
- A.J.V. Riches, R.B. Ickert, D.G. Pearson, R.A. Stern, S.E. Jackson, A. Ishikawa, B.A. Kjarsgaard, J.J. Gurney (2016) In situ oxygen-isotope, major-, and trace-element constraints on the metasomatic modification and crustal origin of a diamondiferous eclogite from Roberts Victor, Kaapvaal Craton. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 174, 345-359.
- J. Rudloff-Grund, F.E. Brenker, K. Marquardt, F.V. Kaminsky, and A. Schreiber (2016) Anal. Chem., 2016, STEM EDX Nitrogen Mapping of Nanoinclusions in Milky Diamonds from Juina, Brazil, Using a Windowless Silicon Drift Detector System 88 (11), pp 5804–5808
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- Aulbach S, Stagno V (2016) Evidence for a reducing Archaean ambient mantle and its effects on the carbon cycle. Geology 44: 751-754
- Aulbach S, Gerdes A, Viljoen KS (2016) Formation of diamondiferous kyanite-eclogite in a subduction mélange. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 179: 156-176
- K.V. Smit, S.B. Shirey and W. Wang. (2016) Type Ib diamond formation and preservation in the West African lithospheric mantle: Re-Os age constraints from sulphide inclusions in Zimmi diamonds. Precambrian Research, 286, 152-166.
- Jablon, B.M. and Navon, O. (2016) Most diamonds were created equal. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 443, 41–47.
- RJ Angel, M Alvaro, F Nestola, ML Mazzucchelli (2015) Diamond thermoelastic properties and implications for determining the pressure of formation of diamond-inclusion systems. Russian Geology and Geophysics 56 (1-2), 211-220
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- 44) AD Burnham, AR Thomson, GP Bulanova, SC Kohn, CB Smith, MJ Walter (2015) Stable isotope evidence for crustal recycling as recorded by superdeep diamonds. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 432, 374-380
- 45) M Bruno, M Rubbo, D Aquilano, FR Massaro, F Nestola (2015) Diamond and its olivine inclusions: A strange relation revealed by ab initio simulations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 435, 31-35
- 46) F Nestola, JR Smyth (2015) Diamonds and water in the deep Earth: a new scenario. International Geology Review 58 (3), 263-276
- 47) S Milani, F Nestola, M Alvaro, D Pasqual, ML Mazzucchelli (2015). Diamond–garnet geobarometry: The role of garnet compressibility and expansivity. Lithos 227, 140-147
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- 49) D Novella, N Bolfan-Casanova, F Nestola, JW Harris (2015) H2O in olivine and garnet inclusions still trapped in diamonds from the Siberian craton: Implications for the water content of cratonic lithosphere peridotites Lithos 230, 180-183.
- 50) SB Shirey (2015) Diamond-Premier Mineral for Understanding the Geology of the Deep Earth ELEMENTS 11 (5), 348-348
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- D.G. Pearson, F.E. Brenker, F. Nestola, J.C.R. McNeill, L. Nasdala, M.T. Hutchison, S. Matveev, K. Mather, G. Silversmit, S. Schmitz, B. Vekemans and L. Vincze (2014) Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond. Nature, 507, 221-224.
- 53) K. Smit, D.G. Pearson, T. Stachel, M. Seller (2014) Peridotites from Attawapiskat, Canada: Mesoproterozoic reworking of Palaeoarchaean lithospheric mantle beneath the Northern Superior superterrane. Journal of Petrology, 55, 1829-1863.Abstracts:
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- 55) O. Klein BenDavid, D.G. Pearson, G.M. Nowell, C.J. Ottley and J.C.R. McNeill, A. Logvinova and N. V. Sobolev (2014) The sources and time-integrated evolution of diamond-forming fluids - trace elements and Sr isotopic evidence. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 125, 146-169.
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- 61) P. Cartigny P. (2014) Carbon and oxygen isotopes in diamonds. DMGC Workshop, Bristol 2014.
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