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Applications are invited for a highly qualified and motivated postdoctoral research scientist with a geologic background in computational geophysical fluid dynamics, whose primary responsibility will be to develop new codes to study carbon transport in numerical models of fluid flow in subduction zones.
A joint study between Carnegie and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has determined that the average temperature of Earth’s mantle beneath ocean basins is about 110 degrees Fahrenheit (60 Celsius) higher than previously thought, due to water present in deep minerals.
Our team of early career volcanologists is conducting expeditions to the South American Andes. Our objective is to provide the first accurate and large-scale estimate of the flux of volatile species (H2O, H2, CO2, CO, SO2, H2S, HCl, HF, and more) emitted by volcanoes of the Nazca subduction zone. The journey is taking us across half a continent, from the giant volcanoes of Ecuador through the altiplanoes of Peru and to the Southern tip of Chile, traveling on some of the Earth’s highest roads, and climbing some of the Earth's tallest volcanoes.
Even though carbon is one of the most abundant elements on Earth, it is actually very difficult to determine how much of it exists below the surface in Earth’s interior. Research by Deep Carbon Observatory scientists Marion Le Voyer, Erik Hauri (Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), Katherine Kelley (University of Rhode Island, USA) and Elizabeth Cottrell (Smithsonian Institution, USA) has doubled the world’s known finds of mantle carbon. Their findings, based on analyses of crystals containing mantle magma samples, are published in Nature Communications.
When volcanoes erupt, they spew lava, ash, and gas into the atmosphere and over the surrounding landscape. The impacts of volcanic eruptions in populated areas are well documented, since scientists can monitor gas emissions and collect physical samples with relative ease. However, a significant fraction of Earth’s volcanoes are remote, making direct observation challenging.
Turrialba volcano has deposited ash on the capital city of Costa Rica and its 3 million inhabitants numerous times since 2014. In a new article in the Journal of Geophysical Research and an online Earthchem database, a DCO-DECADE team led by Maarten de Moor (National University, Costa Rica) and Alessandro Aiuppa (Palermo University, Italy) tracked changes in gas composition and flux from 2014 to present [1,2]. The near-continuous and high-frequency gas monitoring time series (Multi-GAS and scanning DOAS stations) reveal a volcano in a state of extreme turmoil, posing an increasing threat to local lives and livelihoods.
An international team of scientists is traveling to the islands of Papua New Guinea this September to study degassing from active volcanoes in remote jungles there. Some of these volcanoes are among the most active on Earth, ejecting a significant proportion of global volcanic gases into the atmosphere.
On average, 40 volcanoes on land erupt into the atmosphere each month, while scores of others on the seafloor erupt into the ocean. A new time-lapse animation uniting volcanoes, earthquakes, and gaseous emissions reveals unforgettably the large, rigid plates that make the outermost shell of Earth and suggests the immense heat and energy beneath them seeking to escape.
Poás volcano (Costa Rica) is one of the most chemically extreme environments on Earth, hosting an ultra-acidic crater lake (pH ~0, T ~50°C) as well as high temperature fumaroles (up to ~800°C in recent years). The lake was the site of intense phreatic eruptive behavior between 2006 and 2014. Volcanic eruptions involving interaction with water are particularly energetic, causing a disproportionate number of human casualties. Phreatic eruptions are also exceedingly difficult to forecast, often occurring with little or no geophysical precursors.
Scientists believe carbon dioxide (CO2) release into the atmosphere from Earth's interior takes place mostly via degassing from active volcanoes. CO2 can also escape along faults away from active volcanic centers. However, such tectonic degassing is poorly constrained, and to date has been largely unmeasured. DCO's Tobias Fischer (University of New Mexico, USA) and colleagues conducted research to effectively study carbon emissions through fault systems in the East African Rift (EAR) in an effort to understand carbon emissions from Earth’s interior and how it affects the atmosphere. Their work is published in Nature Geoscience, and is part of a continued effort to better quantify global emissions of CO2 from Earth’s interior.
Improved quantification of the global emissions of deep carbon through volcanism is one key objective of the Deep Carbon Observatory’s DECADE (Deep Carbon Degassing) initiative supported by the Reservoirs and Fluxes Community. One quantification approach measures deep carbon degassing in very active but as yet undocumented remote volcanic regions, the Vanuatu island arc in the southwest Pacific, for example. In a recent issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , an international team led by DECADE board of directors members Patrick Allard (IPGP, France), Alessandro Aiuppa (Palermo University, Italy) and Hiroshi Shinohara (JSG, Japan) demonstrated that the Ambrym basaltic volcano in central Vanuatu arc ranks among the top-three known persistent emitters of volcanic gas at the global scale.